Exploring the Benefits of Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and B

Exploring the Benefits of Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and B

Half of adults in the United States, with a significant 70% of individuals aged over 70, adhere to a regular vitamin regimen. As per the research from Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health, one-third of these individuals opt for a comprehensive multivitamin. Among single vitamin supplements, Vitamin D ranks as the most commonly consumed.

Whether you support the use of vitamin supplements or not, there's a good chance there's still plenty to discover about the nutritional value of different foods, the functions of various vitamins in the body, and the ideal quantities and combinations of supplements to think about.

Do You Need A Multivitamin or Other Supplements?

Do You Need A Multivitamin or Other Supplements?

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that women of childbearing age should incorporate 400mcg of folate into their daily regimen, alongside a diet abundant in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, leafy greens, chickpeas, and kidney beans, to mitigate the risk of neural tube defects and spina bifida in their offspring.

Obtaining sufficient vitamin D can pose challenges for many individuals, particularly during winter months, prompting the potential need for supplementation due to inadequate sun exposure and limited dietary sources. Moreover, vegans and certain vegetarians may struggle to attain essential vitamins necessary for maintaining metabolic health, bone density, immune function, red blood cell production, and nervous system integrity.

A 2022 study published in the journal Nutrients underscores that plant-based dietary patterns tend to be associated with lower intake and levels of vitamin B12, as well as other vital nutrients such as iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and bone turnover markers, compared to meat-eaters. Vegans exhibit the lowest intake of vitamin B12, calcium, and iodine, alongside reduced bone mineral density, while meat-eaters may experience deficiencies in vitamins E and folate.

Regarding other essential vitamins, prioritizing a well-balanced, plant-centric diet supplemented with lean poultry and fatty fish like salmon is paramount. The overarching dietary objective is to embrace an anti-inflammatory, minimally processed eating pattern that encompasses up to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, healthy fats such as extra virgin olive oil, and 100% whole grains.

However, despite these recommendations, data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys indicate that a significant portion of the population fails to meet daily requirements for essential vitamins. Specifically, 95% of individuals in the country fall short of the recommended intake for vitamin D, 84% for vitamin E, 45% for vitamin A, and 46% for vitamin C. Consequently, many individuals may need to increase their intake to safeguard against the health consequences associated with vitamin deficiencies.

ABCs of Vitamins: A, C, D, E, K, and all the Bs

ABCs of Vitamins_ A, C, D, E, K, and all the Bs

Research has shed light on the significance of these nutrients.

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble and are stored in the liver, adipose tissue, and muscles within the body. On the other hand, vitamins C and the B-complex group are water-soluble, necessitating regular ingestion to prevent deficiencies, as they are excreted through urine. However, B12 stands as an exception, as it can be stored in the liver.

Vitamin A Benefits + Food Sources

Vitamin A Benefits + Food SourcesVitamin A Benefits + Food Sources

Vitamin A plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for males is 900mcg, while for females, it's 700mcg. Sources rich in this vitamin include salmon, herring, and sardines.

Alternatively, you can elevate your vitamin A levels by consuming beta-carotene. Once ingested, beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, providing similar benefits. Additionally, it serves as an antioxidant, helping to manage inflammation and safeguard vision. Foods like carrots, butternut squash, and sweet potatoes are excellent sources of beta-carotene.

Opting for beta carotene is wise to avoid potential adverse effects associated with excess vitamin A consumption since the body only converts it into vitamin A when necessary. There is no specific RDA for beta carotene.

Vitamin B Types + Benefits

B vitamins contain methyl groups, chemical compounds crucial for various bodily functions such as energy conversion from fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and aiding in DNA and RNA synthesis. However, these methyl groups can only perform their functions through a process called methylation. While some individuals possess efficient methylation systems, approximately 30% may lack this capability due to genetic mutations. Consequently, for these individuals, consuming pre-methylated vitamins ensures they receive the necessary nutrients. Nevertheless, maintaining a nutritious diet and adopting a healthy lifestyle that naturally provides and preserves B vitamins is essential for overall health optimization. Supplementing with additional nutrition boosters can further enhance health benefits.

8 Types of Vitamin B

  1. Thiamin (vitamin B1) plays a vital role in converting calories into energy and maintaining the health of various bodily aspects such as the skin, hair, muscles, brain, and nerve function. Rich sources of thiamin include brown rice, soy milk, watermelons, and acorn squash. The recommended daily intake is 1.2 mg for males and 1.1 mg for females.
  2. Riboflavin (B2) similarly aids in energy metabolism and supports the health of the skin, hair, blood, and brain. It can be found in milk, green leafy vegetables, meats, whole and enriched grains, and cereals. The recommended daily intake is 1.3 mg for males and 1.1 mg for females.
  3. Niacin (B3, nicotinic acid) contributes to energy production and sustains the health of the skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system. Sources of niacin include meat, poultry, fish, fortified and whole grains, mushrooms, potatoes, and peanut butter. The recommended daily intake is 16 mg for males and 14 mg for females.
  4. Pantothenic acid (B5) facilitates energy production and is involved in the synthesis of fats, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. Foods containing pantothenic acid include chicken, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms, avocados, and tomato products. The recommended daily intake is 5 mg for both males and females.
  5. Pyridoxine (B6) serves various functions, including the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, aiding in the production of red blood cells, influencing immune function and cognition, and regulating sleep, appetite, and moods. Sources of pyridoxine include fish, poultry, legumes, soy products, potatoes, bananas, and other non-citrus fruits. The recommended daily intake is 1.3 mg for males and females aged 31 to 50, and 1.7 mg for males and 1.5 mg for females aged 51 and older.
  6. Biotin (B7) assists in the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, and also regulates gene activity. It can be found in whole grains, soybeans, and fish, with a recommended daily intake of 30 mcg for both males and females.
  7. Folate (B9) is crucial for fetal development and new cell creation. It is abundant in foliage such as spinach and other leafy greens, as well as fortified grains, cereals, asparagus, okra, broccoli, legumes, and orange and tomato juice. The recommended daily intake is 400 mcg for both males and females. However, some individuals may require methylated folic acid supplementation to ensure adequate conversion, particularly if they have a genetic mutation that impedes the process.
  8. Cobalamin (B12) is essential for cell synthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism, red blood cell and DNA formation, and nerve cell protection. Sources of cobalamin include poultry, fish, fortified cereals, and soy milk. The recommended daily intake is 2.4 mcg for both males and females, with methylcobalamin being an optimal supplement formulation.

Vitamin C Benefits + Foods

Vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis, neutralizing harmful free radicals, boosting the immune system, and neurotransmitter production, including serotonin and norepinephrine. Sources rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits, berries, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, and Brussels sprouts. Meeting the recommended daily intake of 90mg for males and 75mg for females is achievable through these foods, with an additional 35mg recommended for smokers.

Vitamin D Benefits + Recommendations

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in regulating blood levels of phosphorus and calcium, which are vital for bone and teeth strength. Emerging research suggests it may also contribute to immune function. Fatty fish such as salmon are excellent sources of vitamin D. The recommended intake is 600 International Units (IUs) for individuals aged 31 to 70, equivalent to 15 micrograms, and 800 IUs for those aged 71 and older.

Vitamin E Benefits + Foods

Vitamin E plays a critical role in shielding cells from harm caused by unstable molecules, and it serves to safeguard vitamin A from damage as well. It can be found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, leafy green vegetables, trout, nuts, and peanuts. The recommended daily intake is 15 milligrams.

Vitamin K Benefits + Forms

Vitamin K exists in two forms—K1 and K2. Leafy greens like spinach, broccoli, and oils such as canola and soy provide a good dose of K1. The most beneficial sources of K2 include sauerkraut, natto, and miso. While your body can convert K1 to K2, this process is inefficient. According to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, your body absorbs only 4% to 17% of K1 from spinach compared to a tablet. Supplementing with K2 alongside vitamin D can enhance your intake, but caution is advised as vitamin K can impact blood clotting and should not be taken with blood thinners. The Academies of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board states that no adverse effects associated with vitamin K consumption from food or supplements have been reported. Foods containing some K1 and K2 include eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, kale, and collards. There is no recommended daily allowance or intake specified for vitamin K.


Understanding the role of vitamins in maintaining overall health is crucial. While obtaining nutrients from a balanced diet is ideal, supplementation may be necessary for some individuals to meet their nutritional needs. It's essential to consult with healthcare professionals to ensure appropriate supplementation and avoid potential adverse effects. By incorporating a diverse range of nutrient-rich foods and considering supplementation when necessary, individuals can support their overall health and well-being.

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